For most people the eye is tri-chroma, there are 3 sensors with slightly different sensitivity curves. the brain adds/subtracts the report of these values to derive the "experience" of color. and color is just that, an experience, there's no such thing as red green blue, or any other color, it's just how our brains takes a "limited" cutout of the spectrum, and apply meaning to it.
recent discoveries have uncovered tetra-chromats, many women and some men have 4 receptors instead of 3. the 4th receptor is usually similar enough to 1 of the 3 such that they "experience" color more or less the same. usually it's a woman, daughter of a colorblind (redgreen for example) father, who will receive the extra (anomalous) receptor.
in the event that they receive a receptor that has a Highly different response curve, their neuro-wiring can create a different interpretation that has higher differentiation between hues. as in they can differentiate better in certain tones.
there are also events where they may experience color entirely differently, see pink in blues. to be clear they are not seeing more colors, they are experiencing the visible spectrum differently.
people with damaged eyes and / or receptors can see into infrared/ultraviolet, this is not desirable, they usually have to wear protective eye gear to prevent further deterioration.
people born with fewer receptor or color-blindness also experience color (visible spectrum) differently. for example the most common red-green colorblindness. it's not blindness really, it's a different experience where the red and green receptor response curves are very close together, leading to difficult differentiation unless the two colors are highly saturated. for example, they will not have trouble differentiating fire truck red and neon-green, but they can not distinguish between dark red and dark green.
most modern displays use a group of 3 sub pixels per pixel (rgb) or 4 (rgbw oled).
this is why the new quantum-oled qd-oled is such a big deal, it's rgb without the need of light boosting w. this gives it wider gamut (color purity) and it's also brighter by means of other merit.
the moral of the story is everyone should buy a qd-oled, 😙
or a micro-led array if they're millionaires, these are the best displays available on the market. in theory in the future, these are the most near-term tech to be able to achieve the first 1000hz refreshrate.